Organismic biology and systems thinking
The ideas set forth by organismic biologists during the first half of the [20th] century helped to give birth to a new way of thinking (systems thinking) in terms of connectedness, relatioships, context.
According to the systems view, the essential propierties of an organism, or living system, are propierties of the whole, wich none of the parts have. They arise from the interactions and relationships among the parts.
Fritjof Capra. The web of life.
Ref.: Paul Weiss